Many ethnic groups in mongolia make Mongolian culture more significant

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The largest Riderfestival of World is the Naadam festival in Mongolia

WRESTLING

Naadam starts with wrestler fights. The fighter must to affect to hold its opponent down in such a way that either his head, elbow, knee or three limbs (except foot's) the ground. Each body part may be touched. The wrestling combat clothes were a own costume, of small pieces of silk made, a kind trunk with Jacket, that the arms and the largest part of the back covered and also a Mongolian hat, which is hold carefully during the fight from the secondant.

Costume fits closely and makes it for the wrestler possible to hold on to the garb seams and so a starting point adds its grasps to win. There is no classification for the Mongolian wrestling by weight. In the many local naadam festival is also today still important, since it is still considered as bad omen, if the last victory is given to a stranger. This points to the ritual character of the match. There are secondants, who accompany its wrestler to the fight. It announces his titles and victories by singing. If the wrestler enter the combat place, they do with remarkable movements, in a kind of calm dance in the circle, whereby they let up and down the stretched arms and the body. This is to represent the flight of the strong eagle. During the fights go the two seconds around the wrestler, give them advice and will stimulus them, if they show fatigue symptoms, or give them a refreshing flip. The two seconds are at the same time the most important arbitrators. The winner lets his opponent under his stretched arm go through, then he moves towards the set up state flag and dances himself again the eagle dance around the flag. The winners of the tournament and some others, who fared well thereby, get prices. More than the prices are respected the titles, which is acquired during the Naadam festivals. With the national tournaments will the titles falcon, Hawk, elephant, … bird and lion to assign. As the considerable title is titanium, which receives the winner, who already became the title lion before and from a further important wrestling as winner came. If it can repeat its victory, the title titanium is still another famous byname added.

ARCHERY

Archery is specified only in the Naadam. At this match on the celebration there are no age restrictions and experienced older participants are often better than younger opponents. There are individual matches and group matches, which usually consist of twelve contractors. Normally for gentlemen at distance of 75m and for ladies at 60m shot.The goals consist from different materials as small cylinders manufactured and with a wattle work of leather are covered.

Archery is only competition, in which the victory can be valid add the whole group. Practically all participants can acquire the title of the winner, Mergen, good contractors. With particulars gets the victory with most hits. Each shot is examined by a group of people, which accompany each good hit with a singing, whereby they hold their arms up and form a circle.

HORSE-RACING

With the opening of the Naadam celebration all Jockeys are going in the circle and singing the old ceremonies around the central Naadam place and with high voice „giin go “. Then they go to the start and run again back on to the place, where racing takes place. Racing takes place not on a particularly prepared distance, but on normal meadow by the steppe.

The route starts by the age of the horses (Younger's, Stallions and Trabbers), which participate in racing.The racing distance are normally for two years and Trabbers over 15km, for four years old 25km, for five years old 28km, add still elder 35km and for stallions 30km. In the main Naadam participate often far more than 1000 horses. The Jockeys are children between 5 and 13 years, although you may hardly believe in younger little children that they can control such a racing horse correctly. Nowadays participate very often also girls, which win also not rarely. The children carry colorfully dresses and a special, conical approaching hat. Both are carved with symbolic ornamentations. Successful coach enjoy high reputation, and demand and price add his horses. If the first horses are closer, the spectators sing often a Giin Go on. Independently of it, like many prices the supervisors suspended placed, it can be, become several dozen only the first five horses and distinguished. Gotten the Jockeys, after they presented themselves to the chairman and to the public, a bowl with fermented mare’s milk, whereby they sit still on the horse. They drink a part away and pour the remainder over croup and head of their horse as a kind anointment. We sing praise, which describes in chosen words the horse and often its owner mentioned.

Mongolian Scripts and Languages


Mongolian language is a language from the Altai language, which Finnish, Turkish, Kazakh, Uzbek and Korean contain. 7 million humans spoken Mongolian including Tuviner, Butyrate and Kalmuecken.

 Sain baina uu? that is greeting of the Mongolians.

Hunnen script

At the nomadic states Hunnen, Syanbi, Dschudschan and Kitan were developed further this rune script. From this script developed the old-Turkish ruin characters. The brand seal for Mongolian domestic animals have also origin from the Hunnish rune script.

Old Mongolian script

The Old Mongolian script was developed between VI and VII century from Sogdi. It is written from top to bottom, from left to right. This script is only unique script, which was used alone over 1000 years.

Kitano script

It was developed 920 from Chinese. Until XIII century was used.

Phags Pa script

Phags Pa script was developed between 1210-1269 of Pags Pa Lama as state script during the Yuan dynasty on behalf of Khubilai Khaan. It covered the different languages such as Tibetan, Chinese, Arabic and Turkish. It is written from top to bottom. It became use in different circles in Korea till 15.th Century in Tibetan and Mongolia till 20.th century.

Mandschu script

Mandschu script was developed from 1634-1694. This Mandschu script was particularly spread in the west Mongolia very much.

Clear script

It was developed the clear script in the year 1648. Mainly spread in the west Mongolia, Oirads. It covered the discussions of respective ethnic groups. Over 320 years was it used.

Soyombo script

1686 was developed by Zanabazar, which was high illuminated one. It is written in two way from top to bottom, or from left to right. Because of the complicated symbols was used only for short time in certain circles.

Horizontal square script

1686 was developed with 54 letters and are written from left to right. Were found different wood coining/shaping.

Vagindra script

The Vagindra script was developed from the clear script and used from 1905 to 1910. It covered Russian and Mongolian discussions.

Latin

Between 1939 and 1941 was latin scripts introduced and was not successfully introduced further more because of political reasons.

Cyrillic scripts

For the Mongolian alphabet there are 2 indications more, thus 35 letters. Since 1941 this was successfully introduced and is today still official script.

In addition developed different folding way, calligraphy from above mentioned writings. Different way of writing, folding writings and Calligraphy from the old-Mongolian scripts were developed.


Mongolian Music and Dance

Music is an important part of Mongolian culture. Mongolian music and dance love the everyday life, various changeable landscape and animals. Each ethnic group has own kinds to sing, dance and to make music. Also the national minority kazakh's have strange different tradition.

There are generally two kinds of Mongolian folk songs. The short Mongolian songs "Bogino Duu" are rich at ways of life, deep intimate contents and have beautiful melodies. The classical kind of the Mongolian folk songs is the long song "Urtiin Duu", which is registered as UNESCO world heritage. It requires masterful control from the singer. Apart from the singing art also the methodic how to breath is very important. The breath must be kept as possible as for a long time. A special kind of singing of the Mongolians is "Khuumii", throat singing. Khuumii is best suitable for the rendering sounds of nature and as combination for folk songs and blessing wishes. The oldest and at most common music instrument called horse headed violin "Morin khuur", which belongs to the UNESCO world heritage. The horse headed violin is a music instrument, with which you can play also classical works very well. Masterful pliancy of contortions are breath-taking and got often international awards. Also the buddhist mask dances are in mongolia very common. The costumes for mask dances are so pictorial beautifully manufactured. Mongolians make music and dances for traditional meetings, particularly for weddings, naadam festival, new year.

Mongolian Lunar New Year - Tsagaan sar

The beginning of the new year depends on the moon calendar developed by Hunnen. Tsagaan Sar, is a traditional New Year celebration in the Mongolia. All hours, day, months and years are assigned to the following 12 animals: rat, cattle, tiger, rabbit, dragon, snake, horses, sheep, ape, cock, dog and pig. Each one of 12 years assigned to 5 elements. This repeats itself in 60 years, moon calendars makes in 60 years an era. It is a tradition to this celebration that the children visit New Year's morning to their parents and grandparents, in order to be blessed of them. They bring always beautiful gifts for them. The expiration of this three-day-long celebration depends on centuries-old rites and you should have the opportunity to be thereby. The elder families cook rear half of a sheep completely and put it in such a way on a large plate, as if sheep directs itself with the head northward of the ger. In addition there are different milk products and plenty of foods and drinks. Each guest should test at least of all and of course eat and drink also gladly. The traditional drink is Airag (fermented Mare's milk), Nermel Archi (distilled milk wine). For this festival take wrestling and horse racing in Mongolia place. The buddhist people go to temple and to Ovoos to be blessed the family for whole year. All temple's and monasteries will be full of nice colorful dressed people's in first 15 days of new year. The sunrise is very important thing for the whole year.

Mongolian traditional dwelling Ger

The ger is a circle formed everyday dwelling of nomads. It has only one room for all society and activity. Of course you go on the toilet to outside. Ger has two main parts, wooden frames and the felt coverings. The scissor lattice is one of the most ingenious inventions of the nomads. Thus makes possible to make the volume of the gers smaller for removal. A simple everyday ger without wooden flooring fits easily on two camels for the removal. 3-4 pax mongolian family can set up and take down a simple ger within a half hour. In summer the Gers are occupied only by a layer felt and the lower edges are high-struck, so that the wind can touch through the ger and so that is a pleasant room climate possible. In winter the lower, outside edge were layered by many felt coverings and putted by earth to keep warm. The door of mongolian ger is always faced to the south. The left side in a ger is the side of women, household and family; the right side is the side of men and the back for homeowner and the honored side. Here is placed the home altar. The middle side is more for everyday life and the front, beside the door, more for work, animals and articles. The eldest guest has his place always on the right back. This is the honored place more for male visitors, to be set after their age and not after rank. An honored visitor is to be set on rear left side. Often are the inner walls of a ger decorated by nice ornamented materials, and ground by animal skins or carpets. Particularly elder mongolians prefer a life in a ger, where over 60 percent of mongolians still live. Gers offer as first, where they are located in pictorial landscape, with their white line coverings an extremely aesthetic sight. The roof ring is covered by a special felt, which intended openings more for the lighting and contains the chimney. This opening has a function also as Sun watch: The mongolians know, around what time the sunshine falls on which place of ger. With a cord the roof opening can be closed at the night or during rains. As long as the oven in the ger is heated, you feel a pleasant warmth in the ger, which diminishes certainly immediately, if the fire expires. Most important mechanism is the stove from metal sheet , which stands in the center of the ger. The pipe rises up by the roof ring to outside. Nowadays we use woods, dried branches, dried animal shet and coal, depending upon which they find from the area and is also nature friendly.

Religions in Mongolia

The Nomads of Mongolia believed in natural occurrence, which were not explained. For the reason developed many stone pile's, called Ovoo, for the worship of the areas. You make a sacrifice by symbolically 3 stones. Often you see Ovoos at passes, on the bank of lake's or rivers and also on the summit of mountain's. This kind of nature worship occurs in shamanism and in the Buddhism both. In the history Mongolians believed in shamanism. For the shaman ceremony completely determined, symbolically strongly minted costumes were carried. The shamanism was forbidden during Mandju dynasty, but nevertheless went out it is still today maintained at some ethnic groups in the Mongolia. Mainly the Tsaatan, Urianhai, Darkhad and Buriyad ethnic people still believe in shamanism. In addition there is a row supporter from different ethnic groups. Buddhism flowered in the time of Hunnen, during the Mongolian majority realm and in XVI the century up. Since 1990 we started to restore again many monasteries and temple's and developed much new again. In our history were 8 reincarnations' of Bogd, the religious head in Mongolia. The Mongols believe in sakyapa sect Mahayana Buddhism. 1920-er years were most men of country Lama's. By the communist purge during 1930 years over 800 temple's and monasteries were destroyed and thousands religious books, sculptures, thankas were burned and partially from religious people somewhere hidden and saved, and thousands Lama's were killed. The most influential Lama's were selected and killed. Today you see in Mongolia the old ruin’s or receive-remained old temple's and monasteries in many different areas. The monasteries Erdenezuu, Amarbayasgalant, Gandantegchilen, Tschoijin Lama temple and Bogd Khaan winter palace are importantly great. About 4% of the population are kazakh people. They are the national minority, which were muslims. Mainly they live in west province of Mongolia, in the Bayan Ulgii and Khovd province. Certainly these people have not only different religion, but they have other traditions and lifestyle. Nowadays there is also a number of Christian mission's with its fans, whose portion is however not importantly large. Mainly in the large cities and province centers there are Christian meetings, also church's. They introduce Christianity with completed education projects. There are no religion conflicts and all peoples live together peacefully each other.

Mongolian historical man stone

Also you find often grave stone's in mongolia. At some places you see "very beautifully carved deer stones" as other kind of grave stone's. About 550 deer stone's stand in Mongolia. The largest deer stone of the country amounts to 3,45m highly and lies in the Huvsgul area. At many places you meet centuries old different grave's and also man stone's for the admiration of the leader or the warriors particularly in west altai. Valuable treasures lie as a contemporary witness in the museums. Often in the country you see angular or circle formed enclosed grave's.

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