Mongolia owned half of world in his history

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Mongolian historical period of Hunnus

In the hunnen law said: The country is the basis of states. The Hunnen built a very strong nomadic state as first time in mankind history. Everywhere they spread fear. The country expanded plentifully. Hunnen had developed some satellite cities in northwest India, central Asia and Eastern Europe. One of this is the city of Attila in Europe. Official language was mongolian. Cattle industry, hunting, handicraft, trade and cultivation were fully developed. Moon calendar with 12 animal characters is newly developed and successfully spread in Asian area until today.

Scripts were developed. Building of the first „large wall“ in China against the nomads. Nevertheless the Chinese paid over 50 years taxes for Hunnen after the constituted contract of year 198. Structure of the silk street vending. 156 years before Chris. defeat of the Hunnen realm by the Syanbis and emergence of Syanbi. The center of the country was in the valley of the Khunui river in central mongolia.

Mongolian historical etappe of Turkish state

In the 5-th century were the turkish nomads very strong and established in the year 552 their state on mongolian territorium. In the year 556 the majority realm covered nearly all nomadic areas. The old-turkish rune script was developed. The main part of the population were turkish people. They built their capital among the Orkhon river at Hushuu tsaidam.The ruins from the turkish capital is approximately 80km far away from Kharhorin. 745-840 the old-turkish people's were destroyed and the Uigur's established a state in the area of today's Mongolia (Orchon valley area). All ruins of these cities are in the Orkhon valley, which belong to the UNESCO World culture heritage.The Turkish grave stone's finds often in the westaltai as witness of age. Die old-turkish states left plentiful culture and tradition in the country. In nowadays we found Mass grave's of turkish people in Kharakhorum, whereby we recognized it clearly after funeral.

Great mongolian Empire

From 1185-1206 by 32 wars and fighting's throw Chinggis khaan 81 clan in his power down and combined all to a state. Ikh Churildai, which highest system of government was, announced world-wide the great Mongolian empire.

 

The uigur writing was introduced as official writing. The first constitution Jassa was published. Shamanism was state's religion. In this time economic reforms were accomplished. Cattle industry, handicraft, trade, hunt economy were well developed. In the main point of foreign policy peaceful living together with neighbor states and acknowledgment of the Mongolian empire lay by the other countries.

 

Some countries did not want to recognize the country and even required taxes or killed the messengers, which caused a consequence with long wars and exercise of power world-wide. The majority-mongolian realm had about 2 million inhabitant. Uiguren and Tanguten recognized the rule Dschingis Khaan. Mongols conquered Peking. 1218 began the campaign of the Mongols. The cities Kunya Urgentsch, Buhara and Samarkand fallen (all today's Uzbekistan). The tentcity Karakorum became capital of the Mongol realm. Mongols defeated Russians and 1238 occupation of Moscow.

 

1227 Dschingis Khaan died. His youngest son Toluis, became the regent. Ugudei became Greatkhan of the Mongols by the Ikh Churildai. The secret history of the Mongols was written. Postman system new introduced, tax laws again improved, 1236-1241 defeat of European countries.

 

The capital Karakorum was completed by craftsmen from all over the world. 1241 Mongolian victory over a German cavalier army at Liegnitz. Greatkhaan Ugudei died and campaign was broken off. 1241-1246 successors to the throne was its queen Dorgone. 1242 Mongols advance up to the Adria. 1245 the European envoys Johannes of Caprini visited Karakorum.

 

3 years later a Mongolian legation was established in Rome and a legation of Ludwig IX. in Karakorum. 1246 Guyug's became Greatkhaan of the Mongols by the Ikh Churildai. 1248 Guyug Khaan died. 1251 Munkh became Greatkhaan of the Mongols by the Ikh Churildai. 1253 - war against the Chinese Sung dynasty. 1255-1260 Anterior Asia conquer. The Mongolian majority realm decay into three partial realms. 1260 Khubilai explained itself as Greatkhaan of the Mongols. He died 1294. The Tibetan Sakya Lama Pags-Pa became religious realm teacher of the Mongolian realm. 1271 established Yuan - dynasty. The capital was moved to Peking.Marko Polo stayed (probably) at the court of the Greatkhaans Khubilai 1275-1292 . The Yuan dynasty existed 17 years long. Yuan dynasty existed until 1368 in China. 1368 defeat of Yuan dynasty.

Mongolia today

Continent: Central Asia

Official name: Mongol Uls (Mongolia)

Population: about 2,7 million. 60% live in the cities and 40% live in the country.

National surface: 1.5665 million qw.km (World rank 18), 8% forested, 78% meadows and pastures.

 

National borders: 8216km (China 4673km, Russia 3543km)

Arrangement: 21 Aimag (district) with 331 Sum (circle) and the capital Ulaanbaatar with 9 districts and 121 circles. 8216km (China 4673km, Russian 3543km)

National languages: Mongolian 93%, kazakh 4,3%. Official language is Mongolian.

State religion: none

System of government: Republic with multi-party system

International characteristic: MNG

 

Government parties: MRVP a former communist party, a national democratic party, civil courage party and green party.

Foreign policy: The landlocked position by the 2 large neighbors China and Russia determines the Mongolian foreign policy, which endeavors to these two neighbor state - around a good, balanced relationship. Thus Mongolia pursues a non-alignment and 1993 explained itself as the nuclear weapon-free zone. At the same time looks mongolia for international security, which hopes to find it in a stronger commitment of the USA, Japan and the European union. Main partner in Europe is Germany.

Home policy: Continuation reform politics from the beginning of the 90's. The most important tasks are in the “auction program for the 21.th century”. Important requests thereby are the improvement of the legal basic conditions for the economy and an increase of the investments, advancing the privatization, the promotion of the strongly underdeveloped rural area, the fight against poverty and the fight of the crime.

Currency: tugrug or MNT. The devise were changed in the banks or exchange offices. The course stands momentarily around 1US$-1550Tugrug, 1Euro-2050 Tugrug /March 2009/.

VISAS, MASTER CARD, American Express, JCB and Thomas Cook travelers Cheques are accepted in the banks.

National holidays: 11. to 13.Juli (day of the revolution 1921), 26.November (day of proclaiming the republic in the year 1924), New Year after the moon calendar

Geographical location: between 41 grads 35 minutes and 52 grad us 09 minutes northern latitude, as well as 87 grad us 44 minutes and 119 grad us 56 minutes of eastern length.

Time belt: MEZ+7.0 hours. The three west provinces intend the time one hour after, as in the capital Ulaanbaatar, and the east province one hour before.

Geographical characteristics: highest point mountain Huiten 4374m and lowest point - in 560m in lower the Huh Nuur over sea levels. Longest river Selenge 1000km and largest lake Uvs 3500qkm.

Geography: about 70% of the country lie over 1500m over the sea level. The highest summits are in the Altai mountains, in the central massif of the Khangai and Khentij mountains. 78% of the country cover dry grass steppe, the other part consist particularly of cold, dry desert landscape. In the south of Mongolia spreads stony desert Gobi with flat mountain ranges.

Climate: The climate is extremely continental with very cold, windy, long winters, intensive-sunny short hot summers and small precipitation. Most of the small precipitation fall in July and August.

Coldest month: January. Average temperature: -28C Warmest month: July. Average temperature: +25C

Fauna/Flora: Forests are at the tendencies northern and central Mongolian mountains. In the south Gobi grow tropical plants, like Saxsaultrees etc. In northern and western High plateau will you find species-rich flower world. In many areas are different welfare plants and cold and hot sources of welfare to be found.

Mongolia has rich animal world: bears, red wild, lynx in northern regions, gazelle, Gobi bear, wild as, wild camels in southern Gobi, argali sheep, ibex and snow leopards in western Altai mountains, wolves everywhere can be good game representatives.

Most important import goods: Energy, machines, vehicles, consumer goods, food, raw materials

Resources: Oil, coal, copper, tungsten, molybdenum, phosphates, tin, nickel, gold, cattle industry

Economics and traffic: Mongolia is an agrarian industrial nation. The economic system is in the transitional phase from a central planned economy to a free market system.

Main export goods: Kashmir, skins, skins, copper and copper concentrates, molybdenum, building material, gold and coal. Mongolia has about 40 Million domestic animals.

Traffic: Railway is not very common. The main route is amounted to the Trans-Siberian railway from the north to the south 1200km and the stinging straining to some industrial centers 650km. The main transport is car. Since 2004 is cross and trough Mongolia asphalted motor road nets planned and partly realized. The overall length of the asphalted roads amounts to 1800km and the overall length of the improved highways amounts to 5550km. Nearly in each Aimag center is a regional airfield and the international airfield is in Ulaanbaatar, is called Chinggis Khaan international airport. There are national MIAT and other private airlines. For domestic flights you use Antonov-26, Russian machine, Fokker-50, Fokker 100 Dutch machine and Saab 900 sweden machine. For internal flights are 10kg luggage and 5kg hand baggage released. For international lines Mongolia offer not only own flights by MIAT, also we offer flights by KAL, JAL, AEROFLOT, Air China.

Communication: There are national fixed network and also 4 private mobile communications companies use of iridium, GPS, CDMA and GPRS possible. You will find numerous Internet cafe's in Ulaanbaatar or in large cities as well as in the district capitals.

Current supply: Mongolia produces electricity mainly from the coal - power plants from Ulaanbaatar. Small portion is imported from Russia, in order to cover consumption in the western 3 provinces. Upward rising the natural energy resources are very little however nevertheless used. In west Mongolia we built hydro-electric power plant. Voltage amounts to 220V, 50Hz.

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